Chapter 11 Vocab AP Global

Question Answer
Atahualpa. Incan emperor brutally murdered by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
Caravel. Smaller Portuguese ship which could explore shallow coastal regions and rivers.
Cash crop. Crop produced for export in order to make profits.
Castas. Middle class level in Spanish American colonies between Europeans and Amerindians, made up of mixed races of mulattoes and mestizos.
Columbian Exchange. The global exchange of crops, other plants, human beings, animals and disease that took place after European exploration and colonization of the New World.
Christopher Columbus. Genoese mariner who sailed for the Spanish King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, "discovered" the New World
Conquistadors. Spanish conquerors sent over to the New World with militaries to take over land.
Hernan Cortes. Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec Empire in 1521.
Creoles. Portuguese and Spanish colonists who were born in the New World.
Vasco da Gama. Portuguese explorer known for being the first to reach the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa and sailing on to reach India.
Bartholomew Dias. Portuguese explorer known for being the first to reach the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa.
Encomienda. Forced labor system in which Native Amerindians were forced to work on Spanish colonial plantations.
Great Circuit/Atlantic Circuit. A clockwise network of sea routes linking Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Henry the navigator. Portuguese prince who sponsored sea explorations and opened schools to train mariners for new sea exploration techniques, equipment, and ships.
Indentured servitude. Compulsory labor in which the servant was usually ethnically the same as a free settler but was bound by an indenture or contract to work for a person for 4-7 years in exchange for the voyage to the New World.
Joint stock companies. Businesses in which investors shared the risks and rewards of trans-Atlantic trade.
Bartholome de Las Casas. A conquistador turned priest who dedicated his life to protecting Amerindian rights.
Ferdinand Magellan. Explorer who sailed for Spain and was the first to lead a fleet of ships which circumnavigated the earth from 1519 to 1522.
Manila galleons. Ships which traveled between Manila and the Philippines and Acapulco on the west coast of Mexico, trading Asian luxury goods for Mexican silver.
Mercantilism. Economic theory that the colonies exist for the sole benefit of the mother country, based on the exchange of natural resources for finished goods which led to much wealth for Europe.
Mestizos. Mixed race of Amerindians and Europeans, made up half of the castas in Latin America.
Middle Passage. Arduous journey made by captured Africans who were transported across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Americas in order to be sold into slavery.
Mita. Incan forced labor system through which each citizen owed labor to the state.
Moctezuma. Aztec emperor brutally murdered by Spanish conquistador Herman Cortes.
Mulattoes. Mixed race of Africans and Europeans, made up half of the castas in Latin America.
Peninsulares. Portuguese and Spanish colonists who were born in the Old World.
Francisco Pizarro. Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire in 1533.
Treaty of Tordesillas. New line of demarcation drawn in 1494 between Spanish and Portuguese colonial lands in South America after Portugal protested the line drawn by Pope Alexander VI a year earlier.
Viceroyalties. Political divisions drawn in South America through which Spain and Portugal could govern by appointing representatives of the kings.
Viceroys. Representatives of the kings of Spain and Portugal in the New World who held governing powers.
Yongle. Ming emperor who financed voyages of exploration under the admiral Zheng He.
Zheng He. Ming admiral who sailed in the name of the Ming Emperor to explore and collect tribute.
Slave coast. North of the Congo River in Southern Africa, where Europeans competed for trading posts to gain access to the lucrative slave trade.
Middle Passage. Weeks long, harsh transatlantic journey, made by Europeans transporting slaves from Africa to the New World, during which male and female slaves were chained up in hot, cramped quarters and treated inhumanly, many died.
African Diaspora. The spreading of Africans to many parts of the world, especially through out the Americas, as a result of the slave trade.
Asante, Benin, Dahomey. African kingdoms located on the Gold Coast, became wealthy by trading slaves and gold to Europeans.
Cape Colony. Dutch trading port set up by the Cape of Good Hope, located on the southern most tip of Africa.

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