Life Span Psychology Test 1

Question Answer
Period of the zygote (weeks 1-2)
Period of the embryo (weeks 3-8)
Period of the fetus (weeks 9-40)
What is a zygote a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.
Embryo an unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development, in particular a human offspring during the period from approximately the second to the eighth week after fertilization
Fetus an unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception.
What is the placenta? an organ that develops in your uterus during pregnancy. This structure provides oxygen and nutrients to your growing baby and removes waste products from your baby's blood
What are the three layers of the embryo? an inner layer, called endoderm, and an outer layer, called ectoderm
Teratogens Teratogens – what are they; an agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo.
What is FAS fetal alcohol syndrome
Early Labor Phase The time of the onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to 3 cm.
Active Labor Phase Continues from 3 cm. until the cervix is dilated to 7 cm.
Transition Phase Continues from 7 cm. until the cervix is fully dilated to 10 cm
What is hypoxia? Lack or Oxygen to tissues
What makes a baby considered premature or pre-term? before 37 weeks, it's called a preterm birth and your baby is considered premature.
Two tests to assess a baby’s health and well-being; Apgar and NBAS
Infants and REM sleep Sleep is so important that infants in the womb spend 16-20 hrs per day asleep, 60-80% of that time is spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
What is SIDS? Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old.
What is Temperament? a person's or animal's nature, especially as it permanently affects their behavior
Three types temperament Three types – easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
What are the advantages of breast-feeding? Breast milk contains antibodies that help your baby fight off viruses and bacteria lowers your baby's risk of having asthma or allergies,
How can caregivers help picky eaters? Children need to be offered a new food as many as 10-15 times before they will eat it
What are fine motor skills? These activities focus on motor skill development by improving the muscles in the fingers and hands,
who has the highest infant mortality rates? The lowest? highest turkeylowest Japan
Apgar Appearance (skin color)Pulse (heart rate)Grimace response (reflexes)Activity (muscle tone)Respiration (breathing rate and effort)
Three types of cries basic, mad, pain
SIDS prevention DO always put your baby to sleep on his back.DON'T put blankets or toys in her crib.DO use a pacifier at sleep time.
SIDS prevention DON'T smoke while pregnant, and don't allow anyone to smoke around your infant.DO try swaddling your child.DON'T put your baby to sleep on his side.
fine motor skills hand grasping, holding, munipulating objects
Nutrition – what is the best way to ensure proper nutrition of infants? breast feeding
Apgar o Each score 0-2o Good physical condition 7+o Needs attention 4-6o Life threatening total 3 or less
nbas Includes 28 behavioral and 18 reflex itemso Autonomic body regulation (breathing)o Motor activity level or control of body o State maintaining states (alertness)o Social interacting with people
REM 50% of newborn sleep: 25% by 12 months
sids risks o Premature birth and low birth weighto Parental smoking o Child overheating and sleeping on stomach o African American infants (often sleep on stomach American Indian/Alaskan native)o Reducing risk: sleeping on back and sides
Easy regular, adaptable, happy ¦ (40% infants)
Difficult irregular non adaptable and irritable ¦ (10% infants)
slow to warm up need to adjust gradually to change¦ (15% infants)
o 9-18 months walks alone
o sitting alone 6 months
head control 4 months
how old is a child when he/she can use their thumbs to grasp? 3.5-4 y/o
To have coordinated hand motions? Button and zip? Tie shoes?
senses at birth strong sense of smell. After a few days, your newborn hears fairly well and responds most noticeably to high-pitched and loud sounds.
senses at birth Your baby recognizes and prefers sweet tastes to those that are sour, bitter, or salty. Vision is developing quickly but is believed to be the weakest of the sense
red mark experiment line on nose of infant and sees if they recognized the line 1 year old when they noticed it
Motion parallax monocular depth cue in which we view objects that are closer to us as moving faster than objects that are further away from us
linear perspective , a system of creating an illusion of depth on a flat surface
texture gradient is the distortion in size which closer objects have compared to objects farther away
Which babies were afraid of the “deep side”? can perceive dept by time can crawl
How old is an infant when it can perceive depth? 7 months
Know the False-belief task. This test is designed to measure whether or not a child is able to reason about other people’s mental states
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (BIRTH TO 2 YEARS OLD) The infant builds an understanding of himself or herself and reality (and how things work) through interactions with the environment.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGE (AGES 2 TO 4) The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways, especially by important features.
CONCRETE OPERATIONS (AGES 7 TO 11) As physical experience accumulates, accomodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences.
FORMAL OPERATIONS (BEGINNING AT AGES 11 TO 15) final form. By this stage, the person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. He or she is capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. His or her ability for abstract thinking is very similar to an adult.
Conservation an ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection. Its primary focus is upon maintaining the health of the natural world, its fisheries, habitats, and biological diversity
Object permanence – the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed
What is an important contribution of Piaget’s theory? provided support for the idea that children think differently than adults and his research identified several important milestones in the mental development of children
What are the criticisms of Piagets’ theory? The stages may be inaccurate or just plain wrong. Weiten (1992) points out that Piaget may have underestimated the development of young children. … Others point out that preoperational children may be less egocentric than Piaget believed
Classical conditioning – (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
Vygotsky’s theory: guided participation, zone of proximal development, scaffolding, private speech
Gender stability? the child recognizes that they are either a boy or a girl and possesses the ability to label others.
Gender constancy? The understanding that a person's gender remains the same even if superficial characteristics such as clothing, hairstyle, or activities undergo change; for instance, a boy remains male evein if he puts on a dress or plays with a doll
What is gender-schema theory? suggests that young children are influenced by society's ideas about what it means to be a male or female in their culture
At what age do children understand gender labeling? 7
At what age does children’s play show the impact of gender stereotypes?
Erikson’s stages – the first 4 – Trust vs. Mistrust. …Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. …Initiative vs. Guilt. …Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority
Four kinds of Attachment identified by Ainsworth secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized
Attachment – four phases in Growth Attachmentphase 1 Indiscriminate Sociability0 – 6 weeksInfant responds indiscriminately with cries, coos, smiles, and gazes to promote contact and affection from anyone nearby.
Attachment – four phases in Growth Attachmentphase 2 Attachment in the Making6w – 8mBehaviors become associated with presence of a specific caregiver.
Attachment – four phases in Growth Attachmentphase 3 Clear-cut Attachment8m to 18mInfant develops separation protest on caregiver's departure and exhibits stranger anxiety in the presence of unfamiliar people.
Attachment – four phases in Growth Attachmentphase 4 Reciprocal Relationships18 to 24mChild and caregiver develop a "partnership"of mutual appreciation & influence.
How old infant when begins to demonstrate social smiles? 6-8 weeks
Stranger wariness (also known as stranger anxiety)? 6-14 months
When do complex emotions emerge? 18 months – 3 years
social referencing refers to the process wherein infants use. the affective displays of an adult to regulate their behaviors.
parallel play form of play in which children play adjacent to each other, but do not try to influence one another's behavior.
simple social play (playing and sharing together)
cooperative play (different complementary roles; shared purpose).

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