Medical terminology

Question Answer
Laparoscopy Process of visual examination of the abdomen
Ulcer Open sore or lesion of skin tissue
Cervical carcinoma A malignant condition that can be diagnosed by a pap smear, revealing dysplastic changes in cells
Nasogastric intubation A tube is passed through the nose into the stomach and upper region of the small intestine
Renal fluid Failure of the kidney to excrete urine
Aden/o Gland
Arthr/o Joint
Bi/o Life
Carcin/o Cancerous,cancer
Cardi/o Heart
Cephal/o Head
Cerebr/o Cerebrum(largest part of the brain)
Cis/o To cut
Crin/o To secrete(to form and give off)
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or cyst
cyt/o cell
derm/o, dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestines (usually the small intestine)
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
glyc/o sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o, hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
iatr/o treatment, physician
leuk/o white
log/o study of
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
opthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
ped/o child
psych/o mind
radi/o x-rays
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
sect/o to cut
thromb/o clot, clotting
ur/o urinary tract, urine
-ac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy excision, removal
-emia blood condition
-genic pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in
-globin protein
-gram record
-ic, -ical pertaining to
-ion process
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-logy process of study
-oma tumor, mass ,swelling
-opsy process of viewing
-osis condition, usually abnormal (slight increase in numbers when used with blood cells)
-pathy disease condition
-scope instrument to visually examine
-scopy process of visually examining
-tomy process of cutting, incision
-y process, condition
a-, an- no, not, without
aut-, auto- self, own
dia- complete, through
endo- within
epi- above, upon
ex-, exo- out, outside of, outward
hyper- excessive, above, more than normal
hypo- deficient, below, under, less than normal
in- into, in
peri- surroudning, around
pro- before, forward
re- back, backward, again
retro- behind
sub- below, under
trans- across, through
abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis, hip region
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o, theli/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel/ umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebra, backbones
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process, condition
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
abdomin/o abdomen
acr/o extremities, top, extreme point
acu/o sharp, severe, sudden
aden/o gland
adip/o fat
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)
angi/o vessel
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
axill/o armpit
bi/o life
blephar/o eyelid
bronch/o bronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left, that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs)
carcin/o cancer
cardi/o heart
chem/o drug, chemical
chondr/o cartilage
chron/o time
col/o colon (large intestine)
csyt/o urinary bladder
encephal/o brain
erythr/o red
hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
hydr/o water, fluid
inguin/o groin
isch/o to hold back
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
laryng/o larynx
leuk/o white
lymph/o lymph
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
morph/o shape, form
muc/o mucus
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
necr/o death (of cells or whole body)
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neutrophil ( a white blood cell)
nucle/o nucleus
opthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
ot/o ear
path/o disease
peritone/o peritoneum
phag/o to eat, swallow
phleb/o vein
plas/o formation, development
pleur/o pleura (membrane surrounding the lungs and adjacent to chest wall)
pneumon/o lungs
pulmon/o lungs
radi/o x-rays
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
splen/o spleen
staphyl/o clusters
strept/o twisted chains
thorac/o chest
thromb/o clot
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
ven/o vein
-algia pain
-cele hernia
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-coccus (singular), -cocci (pleural) berry shaped bacterium
-cyte cell
-dynia pain
-ectomy excision, removal, resection
-emia blood condition
-genesis condition of producing, forming
-gram record
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
-logy study of
-lysis breakdown, destruction, separation
-malacia softening
-megaly enlargement
-oma tumor, mass, collection of fluid
-opsy to view
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-pathy disease condition
-penia deficiency
-phobia fear
-plasia development, formation, growth
-plasty surgical repair
-ptosis drooping, falling, prolapse
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy process of visual examination (with an endoscope)
-stasis controlling, stopping
-stomy opening to form a mouth (stoma)
-therapy treatment
-tomy incision, cutting into
-trophy development, nourishment
-er one who
-ia condition
-ist specialist
-ole little, small
-ule little, small
-um, -ium structure, tissue
-us structure, substance
-y condition, process
-ac, -iac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-eal pertaining to
-genic pertaining to producing, produced by or in
-ic, -ical pertaining to
-oid resembling, derived from
-ose pertaining to, full of
-ous pertaining to
-tic pertaining to
carp/o wrist bones
cib/o meals
cis/o to cut
cost/o rib
cutane/o skin
dactyl/o fingers, toes
flex/o to bend
furc/o forking, branching
gloss/o tongue
glyc/o sugar
immun/o protection
morph/o shape, form
mort/o death
nat/i birth
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
norm/o rule, order
ox/o oxygen
pub/o pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone
seps/o infection
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
the/o to put, place
thel/o, theli/o nipple
thyr/o thyroid gland; shield
top/o place, position, location
tox/o poison
trache/o windpipe, trachea
urethr/o urethra
-blast embryonic, immature
-crine to secrete
-drome to run
-fusion coming together, to pour
-gen substance that produces
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
-lysis breakdown, destruction, separation
-meter to measure
-mission to send
-or one who
-oxia oxygen
-partum birth, labor
-phoria to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
-physis to grow
-plasia development, formation, growth
-plasm structure or formation
-pnea breathing
-ptosis falling, drooping, prolapse
-rrhea flow discharge
-stasis stopping controlling
-trophy development, nourishment
ad- toward
ana- up, apart
ante- before, forward
anti- against
auto- self, own
bi- two
brady- slow
cata- down
con- with, together
contra- against, opposite
de- down, lack of
dia- through, complete
dys- bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
ec-, ecto- out, outside
endo- in, within
epi- upon, on, above
eu- good, normal
ex- out, outside, away from
hemi- half
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, under
in- not
in- into, within
infra- Below
inter- between
intra- in, within, into
macro- large
mal- bad
meta- beyond, change
micro- small
neo- new
pan- all
para- abnormal, beside, near
per- through
peri- surrounding
poly- many, much
post- after, behind
pre- before, in front of
pro- before, forward
pros- before, forward
re- back, again
retro- behind, backward
sub- under
supra- above, upper
syn-, sym- together, with
tachy- fast
trans- across, through
ultra- beyond, excess
uni- one
achalasia failure of the lower esophagus sphincter muscle to relax
esophageal varices swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
gastric carcinoma malignant tumor of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach (heartburn)
hernia protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it
anal fistula abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
colorectal cancer adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both
Crohn disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
dysentery painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region
irritable bowel syndrome chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself
cirrhosis chronic degeneration disease of the liver
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
gastrointestinal endoscopy visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope
paracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney
interstitial nephritis inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules
nephrolithiasis kidney stones
nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis) group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine
polycystic kidney multiple fluid-filled sacs within the kidney
pyelonephritis inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma
renal cell carcinoma cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood
renal failure decrease in excretion of waste results from impaired filtration function
renal hypertension high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
wilms tumor malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood
cystoscopy direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope
dialysis process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood
renal biopsy removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix
endometrial carcinoma (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumor of the uterine lining
endometriosis endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
ovarian carcinoma malignant tumor of the ovary
ovarian cysts collections of fluid within a sacs in the ovary
abruptio placentae premature separation of the normally implanted placenta
placenta previa implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening orin the lower region of the uterus
preeclampsia abnormal condition associated with pregnancy marked by high blood pressure proteinuria edma and headache
PAP smear microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix
hysterosalpingography X-ray imagining of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
mammography X-ray imaging of the breast
pelvic ultrasonography recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region
aspiration withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction
cauterization destruction of tissue by burning
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
conization removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix
cryosurgery use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue
culdocentesis needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac
dilation and curettage widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus
laparoscopy visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope
carcinoma in situ cancerous tumor cells are localized in a small area
choriocarcinoma a malignant tumor of the pregnant uterus
colonic polyposis polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
gall stones crystallization of cholesterol and other materials to form stones
ileus failure of peristalsis
irritable bowel syndrome a group of GI symptoms associated with stress and tension
leiomyomas benign muscle tumors in the uterus
lumpectomy removal of a small primary tumor with the remained of the breast left intact
pelvic exenteration complete removal of internal organs in the pelvic region
salpingitis inflammation in the pelvic region, pelvic inflammatory disease
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers
carcinoma of the testes malignant tumor of the testicles
cerebral spinal fluid analysis cell counts, bacterial smears, cultures and cytology performed on CSF
coronary artery disease disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
pulmonary abscess a large collection of pus (bacterial infection in the lungs)
carcinoma of the prostate malignant tumor of the prostate gland
artherosclerosis deposition of fatty compounds on the inner linings of arteries
transurethral resection of the prostate pieces of prostate gland are removed through the urethra
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart caused by bacteria
hydrocele sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
infarction area of dead myocardial tissue
vasectomy the vas deferens is cut and a piece removed to sterilize a male
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) improper closure of the mitral valve when the heart is pumping blood
pneumonia acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction
edema swelling due to fluid in tissue spaces
antibody protein substance that helps to neutralize or inactivate antigens
lymphoma malignant tumor of the lymph nodes and lymph tissue
bronchogenic carcinoma cancerous tumors arising from the bronchus; lung cancer
bone marrow biopsy a needle is inserted into the bone marrow and marrow is aspirated
thymoma malignant tumor of the thymus gland
pulmonary edema swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles
sputum material expelled from the chest by coughing or clearing the throat
mediastinum region between the lungs in the chest cavity
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
pulmonary embolism clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung
mesothelioma a malignant tumor arising in the pleura
COPD a chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through the bronchial tubes and lungs
AIDS syndrome associated with the suppression of the immune system
multiple myeloma malignant tumor of bone marrow cells
kaposi sarcoma a malignant cancerous condition associated with AIDs, appears as bluish-red skin nodules
tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
antigen foreign materials that stimulate the production of an antibody
Hodgkin disease malignant tumor of lymph tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes
pleural effusion escape of fluid into the pleural cavity
varicocele enlarged, dilated veins near the testicles
BHP prostatic hyperplasia benign growth of cells within the prostate gland
aneurysm local widening of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall
hypertension high blood pressure
pneumothorax accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity
thoracentesis insertion of a needle into the pleural space in order to obtain fluid
chronic bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi that persists for a long time
BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia
hydrothorax collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
bronchoscopy examination of the bronchial tubes
bronchial alveolar lavage bronchial washings (fluid) obtained during a bronchoscopy
occulsion closure of a blood vessel
varicose veins abnormally swollen and twisted veins
Ewing sarcoma malignant bone tumor
exostosis bony growth arising from the surface of bone
arthritis inflammation of joints
osteogenic sarcoma malignant tumore arising from bone
fissure a groove or crack-like sore
dislocation displacement of bone from its joint
papule a small, solid elevation of the skin
herniation of an intervertebral disc abnormal protrusion of a fibro-cartilaginous intervertebral disc into the neural canal or spinal nerves
synovial cavity space between bones at a synovial joint
exfoliative cytology cells are scraped from the region of suspected disease and examined under a microscope
malignant melanoma cancerous growth composed of melanocytes
carpal tunnel syndrome compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
fracture, pathological sudden breaking of bone caused by disease of bone or change in the tissue surrounding the bone
pustule a small elevation of the skin containing pus
keratosis thickened area of the epidermis
nevus pigmented lesion of the skin
cyst a thick walled, closed sac or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material
vesicle a small collection of clear fluid; blister
verruca epidermal growth caused by a virus (wart)
chalazion small, hard cystic mass on the eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of the sebaceous gland
cataract clouding of the lens of the eye
bursae closed sacs of synovial fluid lined with synovial membrane located near a joint
carcinoma solid tumor derived from epithelial tissue
sarcoma tumor derived from connective tissue
bunion abnormal swelling of the medial aspect of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone
laparascopy procedure used to examine the abdominal cavity
stapes the third ossicle of the middle ear
callus increased growth of cells in the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction
polyp a mushroom like growth extending on a stalk from the surface of mucous membrane
kaposi sarcoma malignant vascular neoplastic growth characterized by cutaneous nodules usually on the lower extremities
shave biopsy tissue is excied using a cut parallel to the surface of the surrounding skin
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
macule a discolored often red flat lesion
keloid hypertrophied thickened scar that occurs after trauma or surgical incision
squamous cell carcinoma malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells of the epidermis
osteoarthritis progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfaces
wheal a smooth slightly elevated edematous area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin
ganglion cyst a fluid filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or tendon in the wrist
synovial fluid viscous fluid within the synovial cavity
hordeolum a localized purulent inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
needle biopsy a needle is inserted into tissue and a core of tissue removed
punch biopsy core tissue is removed by rotation of surgical instrument
adenoma benign tumore of glandular epithelial origin
mohs surgery microscopically controlled surgery
lymphoma tumor derived from immune cells of the lymphatic system
pleomorphic composed of a variety of types of cells and shapes of cells
ulcer open sore or erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
colonoscopy visual examination of the colon
basal cell carcinoma malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis
rheumatoid arthritis a chronic disease in which joints become inflamed and painful
leukoplakia white thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of the tongue or cheek
osteoporosis decrease in bone density; thinning
muscle biopsy removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
meniscus a crescent shaped piece of cartilage that acts as a protective cushion

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